Hidden Yugoslav History Of WWII: Collaboration Between Partisans And Ustashi (II)

Part I

Historical sources of the historiography vs Titographic „history“ (I)

The clarification of the issue of who Tito’s Partisans kept as their main, if not perhaps the only, political-military opponent and enemy during the entire WWII in Yugoslavia, is directly related to the topic of this article – the Partisan cooperation and collaboration with the Croat-Bosniak Nazi Ustashi. Evidence of the latter-presented here-appears in an archival, original and authentic Partisan document from the period of their “struggle for the national liberation”. This document makes clear against whom the Partisans were fighting and against whom they did not fight, and, most importantly, why they fought four years in order to achieve their political goals (this document is written in the Latin alphabet and contains grammatical and linguistic errors):

Dear Isa, you will wonder how I delivered you this letter. But let it not be doubt to you. When we meet you, we will explain everything. Here is what it is about. You have with the Sixth Brigade, augmented with the parts of the Majevica’s or Fruška Gora’s detachment, immediately to move between Goražde and Medjedje on Sandžak’s side and there to clean terrain from the Chetniks in the direction of Zlatibor and Čajniče. Here you will catch a connection with the left-wing of our First Division and receive further directives.

On your way, i.e., during the move, do not fight with the Germans, do not undertake any action on the railway as it is in the interest of our current operations. Send even before you move your couriers towards Ustikolina, where they will catch a connection with our units.

Our most important task now is to destroy the Chetniks of Draža Mihajlović and break his administrative machine which is the greatest threat for the further national-liberation struggle.

Everything else you will find out when we meet.

In East Bosnia, leave the smaller detachments whose task will now be to fight against the Chetniks and to mobilize new men. Making the Sixth Brigade stronger must not be at the expense of the speed of moving in the direction indicated above.

29-III-1943 g.

With comradely greetings

(signed by Josip Broz Tito, Aleksandar Ranković and Sreten Žujović)

This archival corpus delicti brings clarity to the identity of the only enemy of Tito’s revolutionaries (the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland known as the Chetniks of D. Mihailović) who has been, in fact, the client detachments of Stalin’s Red Army in Yugoslavia. It is of extreme importance to emphasize that this document is signed by Josip Broz Tito himself. Moreover, it should be stressed that several times at the Comintern’s meetings in Moscow his political party’s leadership in the interwar period was issuing directives to destroy the Kingdom of Yugoslavia as a “Greater Serbia created by the Versailles Order” after the Great War. Therefore, it is not surprising that in this document the Chetniks of Draža Mihailović (considered as the Serb nationalists) are the only real enemy who was standing in the way of the Communist building of a new Socialist Yugoslavia primarily at the expense of Serb national interests.

A similar letter to the above, which was sent to the Communist commander Isa Jovanović, and signed by the top Communist leadership – Tito, Ranković, and Žujović, is in the form of a military order, which was written and signed by Tito on March 30th, 1943. This letter (also written in the Latin script) is addressed to the Headquarters of the Bosnian Corps of the People’s Liberation Army of Yugoslavia:

All your fights direct against the Chetniks in Central Bosnia and Krayina and fight only in defense against the Ustashi if you are attacked by them.

Official Yugoslav state’s historiography of the 1980s and the 1990s, has “quite appropriate” responses to these corpus delicti archival documents from WWII that there was an apparently only separate case, which can be explained by at that time military and political situation on the front in western parts of Yugoslavia as the Germans organized the military operation the “Weiss 1” and the “Weiss 2” (the “Battle of Neretva”) against Tito’s Partisans and as it is known, a drowning man clutching at straws and catches. However, the central point of Tito’s offer to the Germans in March 1943 was not the only tactical maneuver due to the “new unfavorable situation” in order to save the head, but rather it was a strategic policy and practical actions by Broz’s Supreme Command during the entire WWII in Yugoslavia. The truth was that the Germans organized offensive the “Weiss 1” and the “Weiss 2” not against Tito’s Partisans, but, in fact, against D. Mihailović’s Chetniks in order to destroy them in Krayina (Banija, Lika, Kordun), Bosnia, Herzegovina and Dalmatia prior to the Allied landings on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. By making a direct agreement with Tito’s political representatives of the Supreme Command in March 1943 (the “March Agreements”) the Germans actually sent the Partisans to the Chetniks on the Neretva River in order to do the job for them. Tito’s fighters met the German requirements singing the song “Partisans prepare your machine guns to fire at the King and the Englishmen!” Thus, the common and the only enemies of both the Germans and the Partisans were the Chetniks (the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) led by General Dragoljub Draža Mihailović. In the spring of 1943, the Chetniks were prepared to accept the Anglo-American allies in Dalmatia. For the Germans, the Anglo-American invasion of the Dalmatian and/or Montenegrin seacoast meant the opening of the second front in Europe and retreat back to Germany, while the same Anglo-American action with the help of the Chetniks for Tito’s Partisans meant the end of a policy of the Communist takeover of Yugoslavia.

Partisans and Germans near Chachak
A German soldier August Heller together with the Yugoslav Partisans of the Ljubić‘s Partisan Detachment in West Serbia around the city of Čačak in 1941

It is necessary to draw attention to the episode in the Soviet “Republic of Bihać” in Bosnia-Herzegovina (which was established by Tito’s Partisans in 1942 with an agreement by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia on which territory the Republic was established and functioning for several months) when the Partisans were leaving, by force, the territory of Bihać which was under a German offensive in spring 1943. The Partisans on this occasion took a large part of the Serbian civilians with them, but not Croatian and Muslim, to the Neretva River and possibly further towards Serbia. There were forcibly moved c. 40,000-50,000 Serbian civilians. This Partisan action had a three-fold function:

  1. The civilians were the shield for the Communist leadership and the Partisan detachments who were going to fight the crucial battle against the Royal Chetniks on the left bank of the Neretva River.
  2. In this way, the (anti-Serb) ethnic cleansing of the area was accomplished.
  3. The Serbian civilians were prevented from escaping to the neighboring safe area around Gacko which was under Chetnik control.

In regard to this case, the Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland, General Draža Mihailović sent to the Yugoslav Government in London the following dispatch:

Because of this Communist terror the masses of the people are retreating from Bihać and fleeing to Glamoč. As soon as the Germans approach, the unprotected peoples are left at the mercy of the Germans and the Ustashi who mercilessly massacred [Ustashi] them. Who escaped by chance is freezing in the snow and ice. Between Drvar and Glamoč there are over 500 frozen corpses of women and children. This is more than a horror. It is a struggle of the Communists who are encouraged by the foreign propaganda to systematically destroy our [Serb] people.

However, after WWII, the Yugoslav state’s and party historiography posited the thesis that in the above case (the Serbian) people voluntarily went with Tito’s Partisans. In other words, it was a “humanitarian action” in order to rescue the civilians and what Josip Broz Tito confirmed in 1948 at the Fifth Congress of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia in Belgrade:

With our army of huge crowds of 50,000 women, children and old men retreated towards Livno … All units were left in their positions, while the Supreme Command with the three Proletarian Divisions retreated to the Neretva River.

In reality, however, this civilian people had protested and demanded to be transported and provided with food and clothing in order to survive a harsh Bosnian-Herzegovinian winter. Information on what subsequently transpired after this protest appears in the source, as cited below:

The reluctance of the people, the elderly men, women, and children were deemed by – the Communists as a type of rebellion, sabotage, Fascism and all else. Their response was to begin killing on the spot. The Communists killed for every little thing. They killed mothers, who were fighting not for their lives, but to save their children, because they did not want to lead them to their death. Political commissars, “popular committees”, field workers and their servants, were at work. They were going from house to house, driving out from them the women and children. They were driven out into the street, on the road. They were putting these poor people in the convoy of death, which was going through the Golgotha, on which they had to die.

It is clear that in this action (the Serbian) civilians had to play the role of “human shield” for Broz’s Partisans in the coming conflict in the valley of the Neretva River against the sole military and political opponent – Mihailović’s Chetniks (supporters of the Royal Yugoslav Government-in-exile, overwhelmingly being the Serbs). The Communist detachments went to the Neretva River valley in pursuant to their („March“) agreements with the Germans. The latter had a plan to defeat the victors of the final battle between the Partisans and the Chetniks in the Neretva River valley in Herzegovina and thus to destroy both enemies – the Partisans and the Chetniks. After the Communist victory on the left bank of the Neretva River over the Chetniks, the Germans along with the Nazi Ustashi immediately launched the new offensive (the “Schwarz”, which is called in the Yugoslav Communist historiography as the “Sutjeska” or the “Fifth Enemy’s Offensive”). Drawing on the evidence provided by Mane Pešut, another witness to the event – Vladimir Dedijer, focused on the personal destiny of the Serbian civilians who formed that „Column of Death“ (after the war, V. Dedijer served as the official biographer of Josip Broz Tito):

Tonight the mother is going barefoot on the ice, with some rags around the legs, which are so long to pull the frost to it. On the back in the bag baby hook. Another child pulls at her arm, while the third, the oldest one, walks ahead, going and weeping. They did not eat anything for two days…

I approach one boarded window. Someone cries from the ground. I walked around the house, went down to the road and came to the door of the ground floor. I saw through the broken doors the people who were sitting around the fire, covered with blankets, silent, motionless. A child cries out in a loud voice. Something struggles under a blanket. I walked up closer and cried as hard as I could. The wrestling stopped, but not and the child’s voice. The blanket was lifted, revealing the face of the mother, whom I had seen today with her three children. Glassy eyes, she was all in a sweat. I realized what was happening. She was smothering her own baby. She was tired of. Griping, looking for the bread. She was tired, hungry, her back was in pain from wearing the youngest kid, the hands were painful from carrying the rest of the children. She just wanted to release both the child and herself from further horrors. If I came a minute later – in the morning we would find only a dead child’s body.  It is no coincidence that this woman said in the evening when I met her on the road: “Holy Death, take me!”

There are already twenty-one days how she left the Banija region with the children to escape the persecution by the “Prinz Eugen Division” [of the Yugoslav Germans] and the „Devil’s Division” [of the Croats and the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Muslim Bosniaks]. She had walked 350 kilometers on the frost.

With respect to the mass suffering of (the Serbian) civilians of the “Column of Death” in February 1943, there is an eye-witness testimony by the commander of the Dinara Chetnik Division, Duke (vojvoda) Momčilo Đujić, whose testimony sheds a whole new light on official Yugoslav state’s Titoist historiographic phrases about the Partisans’ “humanity” in the “Battle for the Wounded Men” (the “Battle of Neretva” or the German “Weiss” military operation) in the winter/spring of 1943:

The Communists disseminate information that the Germans, Ustashi and Chetniks go together in order to kill everyone. And they took with them many women and children from the Lika region [in present-day Croatia]. I was around Grahovo [in present-day West Bosnia-Herzegovina] waiting for Tito’s columns and was gathering these people [the Serbian civilians], accommodating them in my villages and later returning them to their homes. Many women, however, dragged the little children with them: mothers did not want to leave a child! Tito cleverly came up with the idea – as the army moved slowly because of the women and children – that a special battalion was to take the children while their mothers were allowed to go with their husbands. Nurses and special units allegedly will take care of the children. And now, he [someone from the Partisans] has taken these children … about one hundred and fifty. Beneath a mountaintop of the Mt. Šator, there is the Šator’s Lake with fresh water. Here, there was a state’s house for the forest guards. It was a luxury villa built in mountain style. All those kids, I counted their skeletons, were put in this house and the house was set on fire.

I came a month later, and there was snow, from which the little bones of these children were sticking protruding. This picture also I can not forget. We did not have a photographic camera, but one scene could be taken as an eternal monument: a mother from the Lika region [Ličanka] who did not want to hand over her children, sat on a stone of the forest trail, approximately one km. from that house. The bodies had not disintegrated, they were still frozen. The mother was keeping one child on her breast, one child on his knees caught her under the armpit, and the oldest child was lying on the ground and keeping her legs with his arms. This image was never out of my head. And who would not want to kill the Communists, who would not want to kill the Ustashi?

That this first-hand testimony about the behavior of Tito’s Partisans towards the wounded men in early spring 1943 was not atypical, and, in fact, corresponded to the actual situation on the ground during WWII (in contrast to the Yugoslav Communist movie the “Battle of Neretva”, also called the “Battle for the Wounded Men”) gives us another relevant source (document) from December 1943. This document is also historically very important in resolving the enigma of the wartime life and work of Josip Broz Tito about whom there have been written an impressive number of biographical studies, but usually without reference to all relevant and reliable archival documents and testimonies. In all of these biographical writings, there are still unresolved questions that remain. These pertain to his true origin, his distinctive character up to his seizure of power in Yugoslavia by armed forces of the Partisan detachments which originated from the territory of the Independent State of Croatia and were mainly composed of the Serbs. In order to contribute to the writings of both Tito’s true (wartime) biography and his Partisan movement, it is essential to consider one of the extremely important archival documents which sheds light on the nature of the Communist movement in Yugoslavia during WWII.

Tito and Pavelic
Tito and Ante Pavelic

This is a top-secret document issued by the Special Police Department of the Command of the City of Belgrade about “Tito” on December 13th, 1943 archived in the Archives of Yugoslavia in Belgrade. It was sent to the Presidency of the Government of Serbia:

This Department has the honor to report to the Presidency that it has received a notice containing certain details of the Partisan army, the personality of their “commander” Tito, his way of life, as well as about the relationship between him, his closest associates and his army. These notices are received from the persons who some time ago, came from Montenegro.

One notice indicates that Tito and his Staff spent last summer in the mountains near Nikšić and at a place called “Goransko”. Here at “Goransko”, the Partisan Staff organized a medical service using the local hospital, where and wounded Partisans were getting medical help. In the hospital, they were getting medical help as well as the local people from whom part of this information is received. With respect to Tito’s personality, the data we had are absolutely identical with the data received from these persons [civilians]. In addition to already known data we also received information pertaining to, the person. He is described as mid-height, his figure is smooth, he wears civilian suits which are mostly new. He speaks a corrupted Serbian language, which resembles Kajkavian [speech].

The relationship between Tito, his Staff and co-workers is authoritative in both official dealings and private life. This difference is reflected in particular in Tito’s dealing with his co-workers, even with the closest. And his way of life is very different from the life of the others, as Tito has plenty of food, a variety of sweets. He lives an immoral life, has with him a young Jewish girl with whom he previously lived. Thus, he lives well, while his “army” receives very little food. Such poor food is even fed to sick and wounded Partisans.

Those closest to him, include a Jew Moša Pijade and former Yugoslav officers General Orović Savo and Captain Jovanović [Arso], although with respect to these two it is said that they accidentally joined them [Partisans]. Among other things, it is reported that Tito’s Staff, with the exception of the important officials, is composed of just younger people.

Tito’s Staff is very mobile and it is a rare case to be in one place for a longer time. Movement occurs always when it is received a notice comes from the intelligence group about the coming danger. Such a case occurred with the last place of accommodation of Tito’s Staff, wherefrom originated these data. During the move from the mountain and the place called “Goranjsko”, the Partisans burned all the archives, as well as the very building they had occupied, and even 40 of their most seriously wounded [soldiers], as they frequently do [kill] it.

Their intelligence service uses employees, local women, rarely local men, whose appearance would not draw the attention of local authorities. From the same source we know today that Tito and his Staff were in the mountains between Plevlja, Pavino Polje and Nikšić.

Front notification is given to the title, with a request for knowledge and using it.

According to the order, the Administrator of the City of Belgrade, Head of the Department of Special Police. Inspector.

The most important significance of this document is that the end of the report provides an exact account of what had actually happened in reality out of the Communist post-war political propaganda. This is the information that during their withdrawal Tito’s Partisans killed all of their 40 seriously wounded comrades, i.e. all of those who could not move and those whom the others had to carry. And this is not an isolated (atypical) action, but rather common practice of Tito’s soldiers. The testimonies of local informants support this account and, indeed formed the basis of the police report. That is what testifies local informants whose testimonies are the foundations of the writing of this police report. The latter contains no mention of Partsan empathy for their wounded comrades which was such a frequent feature of post-war Titoist pro-Partisan propaganda films such as the “Battle on the Neretva River” (about the 1943 event).

To be continued

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  1. Pingback: Hidden Yugoslav History Of WWII: Collaboration Between Partisans And Ustashi (I) – OrientalReview.org

  2. Laika Lammerink

    Very informative real Yugoslav WWII history (real Titographic history) which makes sense. Nazis and Trotskyites as (secret) agents of Anglo-American led Western imperialism very much collaborated (see e.g. Grover Furr).
    Tito was a Trotskyite thug of the worst kind, not unlike anti-Communist CIA/NWO agents Hitler, Khrushchev, and Gorbachev, and “Yugoslav Communism” was as fake as “National Socialism” in Germany and “Communism” (of the leadership) of the post-1953 USSR. It was actually a main Trojan horse (colony) of the West and helped lead to the CIA/NWO take-over (of the leadership) of the Soviet Union in 1953.
    WWI/WWII was Anglo-American led Western imperialism’s attempt to take over independent, sovereign continental Europe, i.e. especially Serbia (genuine Nationalists), Russia, and Stalin’s Marxist-Leninist (genuine Communist) Soviet Union. ( https://sascha313.wordpress.com )
    .

  3. I think that these pictures of partisans and some other of serbian tchetniks posing with german soldiers are propaganda fake, created by croatian ustashi. I don’t see why Germans, who were tracking and unting serbian resistance, would posing smiling with flowers in hands. Very dubious pictures.

    But it is a fact that german army, when invading Yugoslavia, transfered a large number of trotskyste revolutionaries from Spain to ignite a civil war between partisans and Mihailovic monarchists. Britain played the same game, pushing serbian communists against serbian monarchists, and helped the communist invasion of central Serbia, by heavily bombing serbian towns. On the other hand, anglo-american aviation not even bombed the smallest croatian village.

  4. Basileus, you are wrong. All photos with Ustashi and Partisans are authentic. There are authentic photos of Germans with Partisans as well as on which both sides are smiling. Anglo-Americans bombed also towns in Croatia but only those in which Serbs and Italians were living not Croats: Knin or Zadar.

  5. I used to live in what is today Bosnia. After Tito’s death, a local publishing company, “Graficar” (printing press worker) from Tuzla published two books, hardcover, named “Neretva” and “Sutjeska” It was a limited edition, only few dozens of books I assume. Never made it to book-stores, perhaps became mandatory decoration for Communist Party offices.

    Half of each book was kind of tourist guide for respective areas. Second half of each book was dedicated to two famous battles. Without any comments, editors provided copies of archived documents, from Tito’s partisan and from Germans and Italians – mainly orders to various units and reports from the field. the document were displayed in order of dates. For example, March 15, 1943, whatever documents they had, by partisans or Germans were together, The next day and next in the same manner. The documents were all deemed ‘kosher’ by authorities back then, otherwise they would have not be included. I was a curious young man and decided to trace partisan’s documents day by day.

    For Neretva, it was not clear what really happened, only serious battles mentioned were against Chetniks. Partisans were on the right side of Neretva – wet side. Apparently, partisans performed what was touted as ‘the greatest deceiving maneuver in whole WWII’. Nearby railway bridge was blown up, “to deceive Germans to think that partisans will move to Western Bosnia”. Then, a provisional structure was built on the ruins of the bridge in a single night, over which partisans crossed over and left to area on the border of Bosnia and Montenegro.Interesting thing, publicly known, is that Germans appeared on the right border of Neretva two weeks later. There were about 20,000 partisans, 16,500 active fighters and about 3,500 wounded,cared by so called Central Hospital. the key point of the legend is how the Central Hospital, with 3,500 wounded was saved in Neretva battle. And chetniks received severe blow, final nail in the coffin. I know from history classes that in battle on Sutjeska, there were 20,000 partisans against 120,000 Germans and Italians, ratio 1:6. There were no big battles, at least with Germans at that time. That implies that Germans were indeed waiting for partisans to finish chetniks, then they come to Neretva to finish the job. never mind Germans, the operational battle group, The Headquarters with Tito and Central Hospital all went to safety of mountains around Sutjeska valley. Or so we were told.

    Once i Sutjeska valley, it is unclear what were partisans doing there for several weeks. Not so secret documents (not in the book) but public anyways tell us that Tito was waiting for British mission, allegedly including the son of Winston Churchill. Even Sutjeska movie does not hide that. The area around Sutjeska valley is not rich, barely enough food for local population. Montenegro on the East – water lacking Piva Mountain, little food or anything else. On the west Bosnian mountains, barely passable. Road through the valley controlled by Germans on both sides. Topography of Tjentiste, where partisans were staying was not good for defense. The road comes from North, Focha, and leads to the South, Nevesinje. Between Focha and Tjentiste is Drina Canyon, barely passable. Towards Nevesinje, road goes uphill, through very narrow part of Sutjeska canyon. Tjentiste was a trap. But genius of commander Tito had a solution. Send the Central Hospital to Montenegro, Piva Mountain, and they are supposed to take for themselves in Montenegro, which was at the time occupied by Italians. he Operational group (16,500 people) would try to go West, towards Sarajevo and Central Bosnia. Many of wounded and ill in Central Hospital were immobile – they needed someone to help them walk, or carry the stretchers. For that purpose one whole division was assigned the task. Division commander – Sava Kovachevic. Incidentally, the only member of Central Headquarters that was not member of Communist Party. Total number of Sava’s forces – slightly less than 6,000, 4,000 of them immobile wounded and sick. Note the Central Hospital was 3,500 ‘strong’ after crossing Neretva. Sava’s path was from Sutjeska Valley ( (560 m above sea level) to climb plateau of Vucevo (1200 m above sea) then down to the Piva Canyon (700 m above sea ) then up to Piva Mountain (1500 m above sea), total length about 30 kilometers. It might have worked, but Italians placed heavy artillery on – Piva Mountain. Sava had to go back west. On the way back, they stopped on the edge of Vucevo, scouting Sutjeska valley which was by that time possessed by Germans. The situation was catastrophic. Sava ordered disbanding of the units hoping that smaller groups have better chances of survival. Himself, with about dozen soldiers, went down into the valley, perhaps to drew the fire from the rest. Very few of those 6,000 with Sava survived. What happened to the rest, Tito and 15,500 fighters? The were able to escape the cauldron going West, with minimal loses. On location of Boscija Glava, 40 strong unit assigned to protect the left flank lost either 27 or 13 men, I am not sure which number is for survivors and which for killed in action. about two mountains later, on Kalinovik they stumbled upon German reserve unit, early morning, at the wake up time. Brief knife and bayonet battle ensued and by the time Germans figured out what was happening, partisans managed to pass through and escape towards Central Bosnia.

    What to take from this story? 1) Neretva was hardly a battle, if we ignore chetniks 2) After Neretva, they went westbound into a cauldron like m Sutjeska valley 3) Central Hospital plus entire division were sent to perish 4) The only non-communist member of the Headquarters was sent to death 4) Tito escaped miraculously, almost unscathed. Well, almost. There is a claim he was wounded, right arm wounded in apparent airplane attack. the location of the at event is such that airplane should be taken with a grain of salt – steep side of the Sutjeska canyon, on location where the canyon is the narrower, no more than 20 m.

    Be as ti may, both battles were used in propaganda purposes for next 50 years. Genial trick with the bridge blown up when Germans were nowhere near it, followed by heroic rescue of 3,500 wounded led to genial self entrapment. After all dost settled, my 8th grade reading book contained a poem, named Sutjeska of course, which begins with words “6,000 proletarians have fallen…. they were 6 to one of us…) Proletarians was name used for partisans used to underline class element of the “revolution”, even when most of the fighters were peasants.

    Everything I said can be found in public archives. Sometimes, we just need to look at the pieces a bit different way…

    Oh, by the way, rumour has it that during Neretva battle, there was a secret meeting of Tito’s proletarians with ustashe and Germans in Zagreb, Croatia. Also, at the same time, youngster named Ivo Lola Ribar, by many considered Tito’s successor was sent to secret mission somewhere. Suddenly, an ustashe’s plain appeared out of nowhere, middle of the night and Ivo was gone. Allies airplane tasked with picking up Ivo never appeared. Revolution eats its children, indeed.

    Durin my shool years, every city in Bosnia had at least one school named “7 Leaders of Communist Youth” (7 sekreteara SKOJ-a in serbian) because all seven of them died a heroic death somewhere Curiously, we never learned at school anything except their names. Years later, it turns out they perished in SSSR before WW II started, in Stalin’s purges, between 1930-1932. They were members of Communist International Congress. Nobody knows how they got there, but all had the same fate – snitched on for trumpeted charges by – dear leader Tito. Then in 1933 Tito appears in Belgrade, self appointed Secretary of Communist Party, ousted the guy who was elected party leader and the rest is history.

    If somebody is proven liar, why believe the rest that we have not proven by now?

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