“We’re not saying we’ve solved the problem, but we think we have cracked the principle behind the effects observed in unidentified-flying- objects.” – Dr. Jean-Pierre Petit
Part I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX
Propagated High Frequency Wave Propulsion
What researchers are finding is that some UFOs are sending out an electronic signature of super-high radio-frequency electromagnetic pulses. The pulses are in the 3 GHz region (the microwave region) of the electromagnetic spectrum at a wavelength of 10 centimeters.
Because the waves are so short and their frequency so high the normal sort of capacitance-inductance oscillator with its conductor / antenna emission systems can’t cope and so a different sort of electronics technology is needed to radiate these waves out of the craft and into the air or space around it. There are various methods of doing this with short ‘millimeter’ waves, one of which is called the transmission line, another is with the parabolic antenna and another is the waveguide. Of these three the best suited system for propagated-electric-field-propulsion is the waveguide, which basically, is a rectangular metal tube whereby at one end the microwave power is pumped in, and at the other end the delivery of those power waves occurs with almost undiminished intensity. The science of waveguides is quite fascinating and is nothing like cable or conductor type electronics, the size and the very shape of a waveguide computes in an entirely different fashion toward the end result. Microwaves though are a very useful range of frequencies; at one particular frequency (3 GHz for atmospheric air) they can then create spin-resonance in the electrons of the atoms of the gases in the surrounding air. Electron spin resonance (ESR) raises the normal-mode ‘lower energy’ state of the electron up to the higher energy state, the visual effect of which is an emission of light photons of various colors.
The use of the waveguide is then divided into two propagation modes: transverse electric mode (TE mode) and transverse magnetic mode (TM mode). Strickly speaking the TM mode would produce a horizontal electric field which is not what is required here, and this sort of wave needs to be completely contained within a tube of four walls and in the present application metallic side-walls would need to be run from the center to the circumferential duct and so it wouldn’t be suitable.
What would be most suitable is the transverse electric mode (TE10), where the magnetic field lines are parallel to the a – b (x – y) plane and the electric field lines are upright and orthagonal (in this case) to the upper and lower planes of the radial planar waveguide (see fig. 33e below). In the TE mode the most important conductor walls are the top and bottom planes because they are the ones that will contain the electric field element of the waves, and in fact microwave propagation can occur through an open-sided parallel-plate waveguide because of this factor (there are several advantages to open-sided waveguides and their applications are numerous according to “Open Electromagnetic Waveguides” by T. Rozzi & M. Mongiardo (1997). Microwave ‘lenses’ of course, are also open-sided). The difference being that with open side walls the waveguide will operate through a broader band of wavelengths rather than within one narrow bandwidth which, for the present set of circumstances, is not a disadvantage because the waves will go through a secondary ‘shaping’ to the required wavelength and frequency when they exit through the circumferential duct.
Directing The Propulsion
If the propagation left the craft’s duct through the whole of its 360º the thrust force would only move the craft straight up (or allow it to come straight down), and so to control the direction of movement the propagation has to be directed by the duct in some way or another. The beauty of a system that utilizes electromagnetic waves in the millimeter range is that those waves can be ‘lensed’ fairly easily, for just as electromagnetic waves of the light-wave frequency can be focused through glass lenses, so too can millimeter waves be directed through specially constructed ‘lenses’ made of metal baffles, or with artificial dielectrics (that are formed of a lattice structure), which will change the shape of the wave. It seems highly likely that Lazar’s ufo uses its hull as a form of lens for its wave propagation, so perhaps the Andreasson type does too. At these microwave frequencies the ‘optical properties’ of the electromagnetic wave can be used to great advantage; and the particularly useful ability of the lens to refract or redirect part of the wave could be used to produce two waves.
The “magnetic trowel” configurations (shown in these graphics for illustrative purposes as three eye-shaped sectors) work by strobing electric power to magnetic flux producing segments situated inside the circumferential duct, so that they form into three (or two, or four, or however-many) trowels of magnetic flux and rotate around the circumference of the craft and are separated by three (or two, or more) nulls of magnetic flux. This is done by having one segment switched off between the trailing edge of one trowel and the leading edge of the next trowel. The purpose of these trowel configurations is to channel the high frequency electromagnetic waves, that are generated in the center through their waveguide-like forms so as to ‘shape’ the waves into the required frequency and wavelength – very much in the same way that rectangular metal waveguides are used to shape microwaves.
As can be seen in the accompanying diagrams the radial planar waveguide appears to be about 12 cm high, which within a conventional rectangular waveguide would equate to a 625 MHz to 1 GHz frequency wave, but it is quite apparent that at the point where the waves actually exit the craft, at the space between the circumferential rim and the outer edge of the toroid, the height of the duct possibly comes down to between 6 and 2 cm, and this size of waveguide would then relate to a 2 to 4 GHz micro-wave-region frequency. If indeed there is any gap at all – for energy in the microwave frequency range can be made to pass THROUGH the craft’s skin by using artificial dielectric metal. The idea of making these artificial or metallic dielectrics was first announced in 1946, see “Metal-Lens Antennas” by W. E. Kock in Proc. IRE (Nov 1946) vol 34 p828-836; “Path-Length Microwave Lenses” by W. E. Kock in Proc. IRE (Aug 1949) vol 37 p852-855; and “Metallic Delay Lens” by W. E. Kock in Bell System Tech J. (Jan 1948) vol 27 p58-82. Also see “Antennas” by John D. Kraus (1988) ch.14 Lens Antennas p661-691. In this way a ufo craft would have what looked like a smooth unbroken surface, with no seams or joints, but still have the ability to radiate a series of energy waves).
The strobing of the magnetic trowels can be configured to rotate clockwise or counter-clockwise, or they can be made non-rotating. Additionally, the nulls or ‘gratings’ through which the electromagnetic waves are propagated can be spaced much closer together to within a few wavelengths of each other to facilitate an in-line dual radiation of electromagnetic pulses (as per Mike Competillo’s Radio Wave Controlled Electric Field Drive System page). For current research suggests that the most efficient configuration is two power sources (of slightly different frequency), spaced a few wavelengths apart, so that the patterns of constructive and destructive interference work collectively to produce an electric field directional propulsion.
For the toroid and the upper shell of the ufo some metals used in their construction are similar to the metals found on earth, but the structuring process that the metals have gone through is wholly unconventional and involves some sort of electrical orientation of its molecules to enhance a ‘directional’ conductivity. The late Colonel Philip J. Corso (in his book “The Day After Roswell”) alluded to US Army R&D research into the ET Tech of molecular alignment of metallic alloys. As did the scientific lab tests performed on the Roswell metals delivered to Art Bell (who used to host the US radio talk show Dreamland) in that they have 60 times more pos ion content (“Glimpses of Other Realities – Vol 2” Linda M. Howe p19).
While electric charges cannot be conducted from the charge-accumulating fluid directly through the toroid walls and edges there will be a capacitive effect which will accumulate charges of an opposite polarity, on the outside surfaces which will correspond to the inner ones in intensity and location. This ‘diffuse layer’, as it’s called, of electric charge, occurs most effectively when the liquid is moving, and the faster the liquid moves the more pronounced will be the separation effect of its electric ions from the ions in the differently moving diffuse layer outside. With this same respect the charges that accumulate outside in the space around the lower INNER edge of the toroid in its diffuse layer, which encircles the base disc assembly would be NEGATIVE. And the charges accumulating around the outside of the whole of the OUTER circumference of the toroid would be POSITIVE.
The central rotating assembly is made up of four bi-polar sphere-sets held equally spaced in a metallic plate or disc. The disc is formed in such a way as to fit inside the perimeter of the inner lower edge of the toroid, so as to be able to rotate freely with the sphere-sets, but to also form an electrostatic coupling with the charges on the lower edge of the toroid. This base disc also has a small diameter emission hole at its center. The small and large spheres are specifically constructed so as to accumulate large amounts of electric energy. They can, for this purpose, be made from dielectric glass doped with paramagnetic particles (or diamagnetic quartz structured with different mass particles or sections). These are spherical and smooth-surfaced to prevent stray leakage of their accumulated charges. Holding the two spheres apart is a molded insulating neck-frame (again smooth-curved) that also holds, with insulating arms, a rotating glass/quartz wheel which is smooth curved so as not to provide any current path to leak away charges, The arm and wheel of each of the four bi-pole sphere-sets locates the whole central assembly within the toroid and the wheels allow it to turn along the inner concave wall so that the sphere-sets can be rotated about a vertical axis on an even plane.
Because the inner assembly of the base-disc and four sphere-sets, and its relationship to the inner concave-curved center of the toroid, can be likened to the plates and dielectrics of a capacitor, it can be seen that the electric charges distributed around it respond entirely to the movement of charges accumulated in, and around the outside perimeter of, the toroid. In fact, the whole craft behaves, moreover, as a multi-sectioned capacitor with multiple oppositely-charged interfaces; whereupon, when a charge is increased or decreased at any one section all other sections will correspondingly undergo charge increases and decreases through the various interfaces. It is, by definition of its action, an accumulator reactor. Ufo structure pays special attention to shapes; in that sharp edges move electric energy whilst curved shapes and more especially smooth-surfaced spheres store electric energy. There is very little about a ufo that is ‘for show’ or is perfunctory and it seems that every curve every edge has a special function. The four large lower spheres accumulate charge from the pointed inner bottom edge of the charging toroid, while the top small spheres attract to their surfaces electric charge from the pointed inner top edge of the toroid, although this effect is more enhanced as the central sphere assembly actually rotates, as explained below.
The large spheres are used to feed electric energy into the small spheres. For, as in electrostatics if two spheres, one large and one small, are inter-connected by a conductive link (thin wire) or even a semi-conductor so that both spheres are at the same potential, then the intensity of charge on the small sphere will be much greater than that of the large sphere (i.e. density is inversely proportional to radius of curvature), and that if the larger sphere were negatively charged then the outer (upper) curve of the small sphere would correspondingly be negative, while the inner (lower) curve of the small sphere will be positive (or rather – less negative). These small-and-large-sphere sets follow the same principle, and it is for the same reason that the small spheres inside these ufos have been seen to glow intensely bright with energy. Another beauty of these configurations, particularly with the use of quartz, is that they don’t conduct their charges away – they accumulate it – and so there will always be an attractive force exerted between the diffuse charges of the toroid and these spheres. With this established electrical relationship in mind the small-large sphere assemblies can more conveniently be termed bi-poles or bi-polar sphere-sets, simply to distinguish them as having different electrical configurations between top and bottom (as will be explained further below, neither sphere will be predominantly negatively or predominantly positively polarized).
That these dielectric spheres are said to pulsate with light, of all colors of the rainbow, is indicative of the electrical energy of the atoms and molecules from the surrounding air being pummeled and stressed, to the point where electrons as they get thrown out of their normal energy orbits and jump in and out of higher bands exhibit all sorts of changes. This throwing off of colored photons is only the visual effect of extreme ‘Fermi level’ energy-exchanges of when electrons are accelerated or decelerated. The higher the color up the spectrum (i.e. blue-white) the more energy exchange that is being exhibited. A ufo will therefore glow red or orange at ‘low revs’ and progress through yellow, green and blue ‘through the gears’, to be ‘flat out’ pulsating a bright-white light – and it will cruise with a bluish-white haze around it. By remarkable ingenuity the locating wheels rotate through an area of the inner wall of the toroid (i.e. the mid-section of the concave curve) which, electrostatically, has very little accumulation of charge anyway because of its hollow curvature, and which corresponds to the area of neutralization of charge in the center of a fluid flow by Lorentz Forces.
Plasma Propulsion Forces
Each time the magnetic field suddenly collapses and the plasma gets forced out it generates its own magnetic field that will be fixed into the plasma ring as the plasma ring expands out through the duct, and pulls with it the other charges from below the craft. The whole seething mass of plasma then reacts to the magnetic field ‘frozen’ inside it by vibrating in a highly energized kinetic state and expands at almost the speed of light. The effect is similar to the propagation of an electromagnetic wave but while the electric field and the magnetic field frozen inside the plasma resonate, the continually changing magnetic field is creating an ever-expanding electric current inside the plasma. And while this interaction is taking place a third force, a vector force, is producing an expanding ‘force wave’ of energy against the outside air, thereby completely transforming the electromagnetic energy into kinetic propulsive energy – thereby providing thrust to the ufo.
The radial planar guide is the perfect configuration for a magnetohydrodynamic power generator, which would both accelerate the plasma, and induce electric energy from it. (“The Plasma State” J.I. Shohet, 1971, p. 145) The combination of the radial planar wave guide, the capacitive configurations, and the coiled up cyclo-constrictive fields (of stored electro-magnetic energy) are the main component parts, along with a plasma of ionized particles, that make up a plasma acceleration device (broadly similar to a coaxial plasma gun – but, of course, more refined and much bigger). The plasma, of mainly positive ions and protons would be set in motion by the recoiling action of the repulsed cyclo-constrictive fields and then accelerated by the oppositely-charged planar wave guide electrodes, out in a tangential flow through the toroid’s radial magnetic field. Confinement (which amplifies its force even more) in the wave guide would be in all directions except at the circumferential duct, where the aerodynamic shaping of the duct (and like-charges repulsion) would constrict the plasma and then direct it downward and outward, whereupon the plasma would blast its way through the toroid’s magnetic confining field – as a propagated wave of kinetic energy – at almost the speed of light.
Some comparative figures from a small 8cm diameter hydromagnetic plasma gun might give an idea of the energies involved. Using a coaxial tube to accelerate hydrogen plasma, and where the conversion of electrical input to kinetic propulsive energy was rated at 40% efficient; Unfortunately the above data is rather ancient (“Performance of a Hydromagnetic Plasma Gun” by John Marshall (Los Alamos Scientific Labs) in “The Physics of Fluids” Vol 3 (1960) p134-5). A more recent approximation of output may come the results of work done by French physicists Petit, Viton and Poher who, in the mid-1970’s developed a ‘ufo engine’ that developed 1,000 million watts.
UFO Plasma Engine
Three leading French physicists claim to have made a ‘sensational breakthrough’ into the mysteries of how UFOs are powered. Dr. Jean-Pierre Petit, Dr. Claude Poher and Dr. Maurice Viton, have constructed what they term a ‘UFO engine’ or, The Petit-Viton Magnetohydrodynamic Motor’ by using, so they say, a combination of both electromagnetic and nuclear energy. The French scientists claim fantastic results and tremendous power output in the order of 1,000 million watts. The ufo engine was built at the Astronomical Observatory in Marseilles. Possibly one of the most amazing developments of the French ufo engine, is that the physicists claim to have discovered how to suppress the shock waves which slow down any object moving through the air. Petit said: “It all comes down to standard physics.
An electromagnetic field can create a low pressure area under an aerodyne, or flying saucer. To this can be related the peculiar property of plasma. Plasma’s magnetic field is frozen inside while it expands at unimaginable speeds, producing an electrical current. Using plasma, a belt of ‘free air’ can be created. The molecules of air in front of this belt are pushed aside without piling on top of each other, as they do when a normal aero-foil passes through the atmosphere fast enough to break the sound barrier We are not saying we have solved the problem, but we think we have cracked the principle behind the effects observed in unidentified-flying- objects.”
To be continued