Part I Why and when the mediations? A theoretical approach and practical experiences It is known from the theories of diplomacy and conflict resolutions that in principle conflicting parties are willing to start to resolve their differences when they are ready to forego unilateral means for attaining a settlement favorable […]
Today, one of the most contested areas from the global perspective, together with Kosovo-Metochia in the Balkans, is in South Caucasus – the landlocked region of Nagorno-Karabakh (the Mountainous/High Karabakh as opposite to the Lower Karabakh) as disputed land between the Armenians and the Azeris. A recently renewed military conflict […]
On 20 July 2020, the Egyptian parliament unilaterally voted in favour of the possible use of the country’s armed forces abroad. It is clear that these armed forces will be used in one place only – Libya. In early July, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi promised to send troops to […]
A defining moment came, rather unnoticed, when the foreign ministers of the European Union (EU) held a virtual meeting on July 13 where the group’s relations with Turkey was on the agenda. The resumption of Muslim prayers in the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul came up for discussion. This was how […]
Turkey’s controversial decision to reconvert Hagia Sophia from a museum into a mosque has been met with sharp criticism abroad from those who claim that it’ll exacerbate the so-called “Clash of Civilizations” and reverse the secular reforms of Ataturk while supporters of this move claim that it’s a justified reassertion […]
When the caustic Evelyn Waugh visited the majestic sixth century creation of Emperor Justinian, one subsequently enlarged, enriched and encrusted by various rulers, he felt underwhelmed. “‘Agia’ will always win the day for one,” he wrote of Istanbul’s holiest of holies, Hagia Sophia, in 1930. “A more recondite snobbism is […]
Throughout 2011 and the first half of 2012, the United States and Russia secretly discussed their plans for the Broader Middle East. The Pentagon was pursuing the Rumsfeld/Cebrowski strategy, i.e. the plan to destroy all state structures (Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria…), but President Barack Obama was looking for a way […]
During the quarter of Western lockdown, the map of the Middle East was profoundly transformed. Yemen has been divided into two separate countries, Israel is paralysed by two Prime Ministers who hate each other, Iran openly supports NATO in Iraq and Libya, Turkey occupies northern Syria, Saudi Arabia is close to bankruptcy.
Human communities tend to overestimate their own way of life and distrust that of others. In order to maintain the cohesion of their group, some of its members have a reflex of rejecting newcomers. However, as soon as they get to know them, as soon as they understand that they […]
It’s the sort of thing that ruffled the image of a composed and tranquil existence. In some countries, doing away with political leaders is a periodic affair, deemed necessary to clean the stables. But in Sweden, change is barely discernible, stability nigh guaranteed and institutions revered. “It’s in the tradition […]
The political reactions to the Covid-19 pandemic reveal surprising weaknesses in Western democracies: prejudice and ignorance. On the contrary, China and Cuba appear more capable of facing the future.
Events in the “Broader Middle East” since 2001 have followed a relentless logic. The current question is whether the time has come for a new war in Turkey or Saudi Arabia. The answer depends in particular on the resumption of hostilities in Libya. It is in this context that the Additional Protocol negotiated by Presidents Erdoğan and Putin to resolve the Idleb crisis must be interpreted.