Common historical feature of the “Three Baltic sister-states” (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) is that for most of the modern time instead of the state independence there were the decades of the foreign administrations imposed by several European powers. Such historical experience exposed the people living in this part of the […]
Part I The standardization of the Dutch language The history of the standardization of Dutch and of the political partition of the Netherlands (the Low Countries) gives significant insights into the role of language in the modern Netherlands (called as well as Holland) and Belgium. The fact that the standardization […]
In the area where the multilingual state of Belgium is located, the main political mark today is the general openness for the expression of different attitudes and policies. Therefore, there are almost unlimited options in drawing political boundaries. That is unlike, for example, as well as with multilingual Switzerland, where […]
Part I Boshnjak, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnian One of the main problematic issues concerning the ethnolinguistic-statehood reality of the Boshnjaks is the fact that their ethnic, language and state’s names are not having the same terminology as it is championed by the majority of the European nations (ex. Polish nation; Polish state; […]
“We have always been here and the Muslims have only been here since the 15th century” The Serbian mayor of Bratunac in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ( The New York Times, April 22nd, 1993) This article has to be part of a wider study upon the reasons and the stream of […]
Part I, Part II, Part III The Croatian (Illyrian) Revival Movement until a victory of the national (South Slavic) language (1847) The Austrian Emperor, Ferdinand V (1835–1848), on January 11th, 1843 issued the order of prohibition of the use of the Illyrian name and the Illyrian coat of arms. The […]
The growing economic, social, linguistic and political gap between Wallonia and Flanders led Belgium during the last decades into instability and segregation of the society along the ethnic lines. It is visible and from the political scene of the country as new regional parties were formed by the Flemish and Walloon sections of the Christian Democrats, the Socialists, and the Liberals.
Part I,Part II The question of Dubrovnik (Ragusium/Ragusa)? I. Derkos and J. Drašković promoted the štokavian dialect of Renaissance and Baroque literature of the Republic of Dubrovnik (Ragusium/Ragusa) as a Croatian one–an act which created among the Croats a national conscience upon the Ragusian cultural heritage as solely a Croatian […]
Part I The Illyrian Movement until the creation of political parties (1841) Certainly, publishing of Lj. Gaj’s Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskoga pravopisanja/Die Kleine Kroatische-Slavischen Orthographie in 1830 marked the beginning of the Croatian national revival movement and made Ljudevit Gaj be a leading figure of it. The essential political-national value of […]
Part I The Indo-European Illyrian population inhabited West Balkans and some regions to the north-west of the Balkan Peninsula. They never developed the letter and thus did not enter history by their own means. Almost all we know about them came from the Greek and Roman testimonies – names of […]
The case of Belarussian identity is today probably the best example in East Europe of an effective policy of creation of the national identity founded on the „imagined community“ feelings.